Biochips - technologies,markets and companies -

Published: January 2016 | Pages: 262 | Format: PDF


 This report is an analysis of biochip/microarray markets based on technologies and applications. The report starts with a description of technologies as a basis for estimation of markets. Technologies include array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation, ChIP-Chip, RNA splice variants, and microRNA. Separate chapters are devoted to protein biochips/microarrays, microfluidics and nanobiotechnology-based nano-arrays. 

 Various applications of biochips and microarrays are described throughout the report. Areas of application such as point-of-care, genetic screening, cancer, and diagnosis of infections are included. Separate chapters are devoted to applications in drug discovery and development as well as personalized medicine 

 The report provides current share of each segment: market size in 2013 and projected value for the years 2018 and 2023. Gene expression has the largest share and is an established market. Share of microarray technologies in other areas will grow with the maximum growth in RNA splice variants followed by epigenetics. The growth in protein microarrays is somewhat less, partly because it is more mature than the other submarkets and has already shown considerable growth in the past. Impact of next generation sequencing on segments of microarray markets is identified. Customer requirements and unmet needs are described. Markets are also analyzed according to geographical areas. 

 Brief profiles of companies involved in biochip/microarray technologies are provided. Currently selected 92 companies are included along with listing of 115 collaborations between companies. The text is supplemented by 20 tables, 10 figures and 130 references to literature. 

 0. Executive Summary 


 1. Introduction 

 Definitions of biochips/microarray 

 Terms used for biochips 

 Historical aspects of biochip/microarray technology 

 Relation of microarrays to other technologies 

 Applications of biochips/microarrays 

 Advantages of biochips/microarrays  


 2. Biochip and Microarray Technologies 


 Nucleic acid amplification and microarrays 

 PCR on a chip 

 Fast PCR biochip 

 Multiplex microarray-enhanced PCR for DNA analysis 

 Universal DNA microarray combining PCR and ligase detection reaction 

 NASBA combined with microarray 

 Rolling circle amplification on microarrays 


 Multiplexed Molecular Profiling 

 Genomewide association scans 

 Whole genome microarrays 

 GeneChip Human Genome Arrays 

 Arrayit's® H25K 

 Transposon insertion site profiling chip 

 Standardizing the microarrays 

 Optical Mapping 

 Imaging technologies used for detection in biochips/microarray 

 Fluorescence and chemiluminescence 

 MALDI-MS imaging and tissue microarrays 

 Surface plasmon resonance technology for microarrays 

 Microarray imaging systems 

 Vidia- Microarray Imaging Systems 

 GenePix 4100A Microarray Scanner 

 Tecan LS Reloaded- 

 Microarrays based on ENA detection by physico-chemical methods 

 Electrochemical detection of DNA 

 Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays 

 Microchip capillary electrophoresis 

 Strand displacement amplification on a biochip 

 Biosensor technologies for biochips 

 DNA-based biosensors 

 Phototransistor biochip biosensor 

 Microarrays for cytogenetics 

 Comparative genomic hybridization 

 Array-based CGH 

 NimbleGen CGH arrays 

 Single-cell array CGH 

 Regulatory requirements for array CGH 

 Agilent CGH+SNP microarray platform 


 Tissue microarrays 

 Pathology tissue-ChIP 

 Carbohydrate microarrays 

 RNA profiling 

 RNA splice variants 



 Microarrays for miRNAs 

 Microarrays vs qPCR for measuring miRNAs 

 Quantitative analysis of miRNAs in tissue microarrays by ISH 

 Exon microarrays 

 Microarrays & DNA sequencing 

 Microarray-based emerging DNA sequencing technologies 

 Exome sequencing for study of human variation 

 High-throughput array-based resequencing 

 Sequencing by hybridization 

 SOLiD-System based ChIP-Sequencing 

 Next generation sequencing vs microarrays for expression profiling 

 Microarrays for synthetic biology 

 Arrayit microarray platform for synthetic biology 

 Microarray-based gene synthesis 

 Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies  


 3. Microfluidics-based Biochips and Microarrays 






 Micronics' microfluidic technology 

 Rheonix CARD technology 

 Microfluidic chips/arrays using PCR 

 Digital PCR Array 

 Digital PCR on a SlipChip 

 Microfluidic automated DNA analysis using PCR 

 Microfluidic single-cell RT-qPCR on a chip 

 Microfluidic chips integrated with RCAT 

 Microfluidic chips integrated with PET 

 Molecular diagnostic applications of microfluidic biochips 

 Biochips/microfluidics for detection of circulating tumor cells 

 CEE (cell enrichment and extraction) technology 


 DNA nanospheres for isolation of CTCs 

 Herringbone-chip for detection of CTCs 

 Lab-on-chip for the isolation and detection of CTCs 

 Microfluidic devices for analyzing blood of pediatric and neonatal patients 

 Microfluidic PepArray- for in situ synthesis of peptides 

 Integrated microfluids platform for biomolecular interactions 

 Companies developing microfluidic technologies  


 4. Protein Biochips 


 Protein biochip technologies 

 Protein microarrays 

 Affinity proteomics /antibody microarrays 

 Applications of antibody microarrays 

 Antibody microarrays for diagnosis of cancer 

 Discovery of biomarkers by MAb microarray profiling 

 Aptamer-based protein biochip 

 High-density protein microarrays 

 HPLC-Chip for protein identification 

 2D displacement chromatography using HPLC Chip 

 LabChip for protein analysis 

 MALDI-MS imaging and protein microarrays 

 Multiplexed Protein Profiling on Microarrays 

 Peptide microarrays 


 Protein chips for antigen-antibody interactions molecular diagnostics 

 Proteomic pattern analysis 

 Reverse phase protein microarrays 

 Single molecule array 

 TRINECTIN proteome chip 

 New developments in protein chips/microarrays 

 Microfluidic devices for proteomics-based diagnostics 

 Viral protein chip 

 Use of microarray technologies in human protein atlas initiative 

 Applications of protein biochip/microarrays 

 Applications of peptide microarrays 

 Biosensor protein chip 

 Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array 

 Proteome Identification Kit 

 Protein nanobiochip for diagnosis 

 Proteomic chip for profiling signaling pathways in single tumor cells 

 Protein biochips/microarrays for personalized medicine 

 Companies involved protein biochips/microarrays  


 5. Nanobiotechnology-based Biochips & Microarrays 


 Nanotechnology-based biochips 

 Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip 

 Nanotechnology on a chip 

 NanoChip® Electronic Microarray 

 Silver nanorod array for on-chip detection of microbes and chemicals 

 Verigene System 

 Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics 

 Construction of nanofluidic channels 

 NanoAnalyzer® chip 

 Nanoscale flow visualization 

 Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces 

 Electrochemical nanofluid injection 

 Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces 

 Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip 

 Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA 


 Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays 

 NanoPro- System 


 Biochips with nanosensors 

 Peptide nucleic acid nanobiosensor arrays 

 Cantilever arrays 

 Nanotechnology-based protein biochips/microarrays 

 AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density nanoarrays 

 Nanoparticle protein chip 

 Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology 

 Self-assembling protein nanoarrays 

 Diagnostic applications of nanobiochips 

 Nanofluidic devices to detect a single molecule of DNA 

 Nanochip/biosensor for detection of circulating cancer cells  


 6. Biochips & Microarrays for Epigenetics 


 Epigenomic technologies 

 Epigenomics Digital Phenotype 

 Global methylation analysis 

 Illumina’s assays for analysis of methylation sites 

 GenomicTree’s MDScan? technology 

 Orion’s MethylScope® technology 


 Microarray for immunogenetic testing 

 Applications for study of DNA methylation  


 7. Applications of Microarrays in Drug Discovery & Development 


 Drug discovery 

 Finding lead compounds 

 High-throughput cDNA microarrays 

 Use of gene expression data to find new drug targets 

 Investigation of the mechanism of drug action 

 Cellular microarrays 

 Peptide microarrays for high-throughput screening 

 Biochips for toxicology studies 

 Gene expression studies for toxicology using microarrays 


 Testing drugs in organ-on-a-chip microdevices 




 SmartChip for cancer drug discovery 

 Drug development 

 Use of microarrays in clinical trials 

 Reverse phase protein microarrays 

 Controlled-release microchip for drug delivery 

 Implanted chips for drug delivery 

 Lab-on-a-chip for drug delivery 



 8. Biochips for Biomarkers, Molecular Diagnostics & Personalized 



 Applications of biochip technology in personalized medicine 

 Microarrays with integrated PCR 

 AmpliChip CYP450 

 AmpliChip P53 as companion diagnostic for cancer 

 Infinity System 

 In-Check Lab-on-Chip 

 Application of microarrays for discovery of biomarkers 

 Gene expression microarray data as a source of protein biomarkers 

 Peptide array technology for detection of biomarkers 

 Protein microarrays for discovery of biomarkers 

 QPDx® BioChips for biomarkers 

 Tissue microarrays for study of biomarkers 

 Biochip and microarray-based detection of SNPs 

 Affymetrix Variation Detection Arrays 

 Biochip combining BeadArray and ZipCode technologies 

 NanoChip for detection of SNPs 

 SNP genotyping by MassARRAY 

 SNP-IT primer-extension technology 

 Copy number variations in the human genome 

 Agilent microarrays 

 Affymetrix microarrays 

 Infinium’s CNV and SNP lines 

 HD Human660W-Quad BeadChip 

 Roche NimbleGen’s CGH and CNV product line 

 TaqMan® Copy Number Assays 

 Innovations in CNV and CGH microarrays 

 Bioinformatic tools for analysis of CNV data 

 Commercial development of biochip technologies for diagnostics  


 9. Markets 


 Methods for estimation of markets 

 Microarray markets 

 Market share of microfluidics-based microarrays 

 Gene expression microarray markets 

 Array CGH markets 

 CNV markets 

 Markets for RNA splice variants 

 Markets for imaging technologies used in biochips/microarrays 

 Markets for microarray relevant to miRNA 

 Epigenetic markets 


 Markets for protein microarrays 

 Role of scientists’ attitudes on the evolution of protein microarray markets 

 Market share of microarray technology in protein biomarkers 

 Geographical distribution of microarray markets 

 Currents trends 

 Types of arrays used 

 Tiling array 

 Exon array 

 Reaction specifics 

 Pre-amplification use 

 Reagents from array vendor or other sources 

 Dual versus single color array preference 

 Oligo versus BAC preference 

 Cost per sample or cost per array 

 Preference for single versus multiplex sample arrays 

 Current and future throughput in samples per week 

 Use in niche markets 


 Drug discovery 



 Screening assays versus whole genome aCGH 

 Effect of next generation sequencing on microarray markets 

 Impact of next generation sequencing on microarray markets for diagnostics 

 Impact of next gen sequencing on microarray markets for drug discovery 


 RNA profiling 

 Transcriptome sequencing for mRNA Expression 

 Applications of next generation sequencing in basic research 

 Mapping and sequencing of structural variation from human genomes 

 Identifying protein-coding genes in genomic sequences 

 Applications in clinically relevant areas 

 Genetic disorders 

 Cancer research 

 Management of HIV/AIDS 

 Customer requirements and unmet needs 

 Concluding remarks on microarray markets 

 Future of biochip technology for molecular diagnostics 

 Impact of next generation sequencing on microarray markets in the future 

 Effect on CNV market 

 Effect on RNA profiling 

 Screening samples  


 10. Companies 

 Profiles of companies 



 11. References  



 Table 1-1: Various terms used for biochips, microarrays and microfluidics 

 Table 1-2: Historical landmarks relevant to the development of biochip technology 

 Table 1-3: Applications of microarrays 

 Table 2-1: Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays 

 Table 2-2: Microarray imaging systems 

 Table 2-3: Microarray/biochip-based technologies for cytogenetics 

 Table 2-4: Companies developing whole genome chips/microarrays 

 Table 2-5: ChIP detection platforms for sequencing 

 Table 3-1: Companies developing microfluidic technologies 

 Table 4-1: Applications of protein biochips/microarrays 

 Table 4-2: Applications of peptide microarrays 

 Table 4-3: Companies involved in peptide microarrays 

 Table 4-4: Selected companies involved in protein biochip/microarray technology 

 Table 5-1: Companies with nanoarray and nanofluidic technologies 

 Table 8-1: Applications of biochip technology relevant to personalized medicine 

 Table 8-2: Companies involved in biochips for molecular diagnostics 

 Table 9-1: Growth of markets for microarray technologies from 2013 to 2023 

 Table 9-2: Geographical distribution of biochip/microarray markets 2013-2023 

 Table 9-3: Global markets for sequencing services according to applications 

 Table 10-1: Collaborations  



 Figure 1-1: Relation of microarrays to other technologies and applications 

 Figure 2-1: Affymetrix GeneChip technology 

 Figure 2-2: Surface plasma resonance (SPR) 

 Figure 2-3: Basic principle of a biosensor 

 Figure 2-4: Construction of SOLiD fragment library using DNA enrichment by ChIP 

 Figure 4-1: ProteinChip System 

 Figure 5-1: Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN) 

 Figure 8-1: Role of biochip/microarray technology in personalized medicine 

 Figure 8-2: Application of biochips/microarrays in personalized medicine 

 Figure 8-3: Role of CYP450 genotyping in development of personalized medicine