Date published 
October 2012


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Therapies for Solid Tumors: Pipelines, Markets, and Business Considerations - Table of Contents


Author: Lucy J. Sannes, PhD, MBA

Executive Summary

 Chapter 1 
Scope of the Report

 Chapter 2 
Review of Selected Major Solid Tumors Targeted by Pharmaceutical Companies
2.1. Brain Cancer
2.2. Breast Cancer
2.3. Cervical Cancer
2.4. Colorectal Cancer
2.5. Head and Neck Cancer
2.6. Lung Cancer
Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Small-Cell Lung Cancer
2.7. Melanoma
2.8. Ovarian Cancer
2.9. Pancreatic Cancer
2.10. Prostate Cancer
2.11. Renal Cancer

 Chapter 3 
Current Pharmacological Treatment Options for Solid Tumors
3.1. Brain Cancer
3.2. Breast Cancer
Hormone Therapy
Targeted Therapy:  HER2-Positive Cancers
3.3. Cervical Cancer
3.4. Colorectal Cancer
Targeted Therapy:  EGF Receptor
Targeted Therapy:  VEGF Receptor
3.5. Head and Neck Cancer
3.6. Lung Cancer
Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Kinase Inhibitors
Angiogenesis Inhibitor
Photodynamic Therapy
Small-Cell Lung Cancer
3.7. Melanoma
3.8. Ovarian Cancer
3.9. Pancreatic Cancer
Kinase Inhibitors
3.10. Prostate CancerLuteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Agonists
Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Antagonists
Androgen Synthesis Inhibitor
3.11. Renal CancerImmunotherapy
Kinase Inhibitors
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Inhibitor
3.12. Other Cancers 

 Chapter 4 
Selected Emerging Targeted Therapies That Block Cell Growth, Cell Cycle and Replication, DNA Repair, Cell Proliferation, Tumor Invasion, and Metastasis
4.1. Selected Inhibitors of the EGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Family
Boehringer Ingelheim’s Afatinib 
CIMAB’s, YM Biosciences’, and Others’ Nimotuzumab
Eli Lilly’s and Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Necitumumab
Kadmon’s KD019 
Pfizer’s Dacomitinib
Roche/Genentech’s PERJETA (Pertuzumab) – Approved June 2012
Roche/Genentech’s Trastuzumab Emtansine
4.2. Selected Inhibitors of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK Pathway 
GlaxoSmithKline’s Dabrafenib
GlaxoSmithKline’s Trametinib
4.3. Selected Inhibitors of c-MetArQule’s, Daiichi Sankyo’s, and Kyowa Hakko Kirin’s Tivantinib
Exelixis’ Cabozantinib
Roche/Genentech’s Onartuzumab
4.4. Selected Inhibitors of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) and Insulin-like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor (IGF1R)Amgen’s and Takeda Pharmaceutical’s Ganitumab
Astellas Pharma’s Linsitinib
4.5. Selected TGF-β2 InhibitorsAntisense Pharma’s Trabedersen
4.6. Selected Kit and PDGFR InhibitorsAB Science’s Masitinib
4.7. Selected PARP (Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase) InhibitorsSanofi’s Iniparib
4.8. Selected Inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR PathwayMerck’s and ARIAD Pharmaceuticals’ Ridaforolimus
4.9. Other Emerging Therapies with Antiproliferative EffectsPolaris Group’s ADI-PEG 20
Roche/Genentech’s Erivedge – Approved January 2012

 Chapter 5 
Selected Emerging Therapies That Induce Apoptosis
Onconova Therapeutics’ Estybon (Rigosertib)

 Chapter 6 
Selected Emerging Angiogenesis Inhibitors and Vascular-Targeting Agents
6.1. Selected Angiogenesis Inhibitors That Target VEGFR, PDGFR, and/or FGFR
Abbott’s Linifanib
Advenchen Laboratories’, LSK BioPartners’, and Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine’s Apatinib
Amgen’s and Takeda Pharmaceutical’s Motesanib (AMG 706)
Astellas Pharma’s, AVEO Oncology’s, and Kyowa Hakko Kirin’s Tivozanib
Bayer HealthCare’s Regorafenib
Boehringer Ingelheim’s Nintedanib 
Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Brivanib
Eisai’s Lenvatinib
Eli Lilly’s Ramucirumab
Novartis’ Dovitinib
Pfizer’s Inlyta (Axitinib; Approved January 2012)
Sanofi’s and Regeneron’s Zaltrap (Aflibercept)
Taiho Pharmaceutical’s Orantinib
6.2. Selected Angiogenesis Inhibitors That Target TIE Receptor and/or Its LigandsAmgen’s and Takeda Pharmaceutical’s AMG 386
6.3. Selected Integrin InhibitorsMerck Serono’s Cilengitide
6.4. Selected Other Angiogenesis InhibitorsActive Biotech’s and Ipsen’s Tasquinimod
Medigen Biotechnology’s PI-88
6.5. Selected Vascular Targeting/Disrupting AgentsMolMed’s NGR-hTNF 
Sanofi’s Ombrabulin

 Chapter 7 
Selected Emerging Therapies That Target Hormone Regulation
7.1. Selected Emerging Therapies with Anti-Androgen Activity
Astellas Pharma’s and Medivation’s Enzalutamide
Millennium:  The Takeda Oncology Company’s Orteronel
7.2. Selected Other Emerging Therapies Targeting Regulation of HormonesNovartis’ Pasireotide

 Chapter 8 
Selected Emerging Immune-Based Therapies for Solid Tumors
8.1. Selected Active Immunotherapies and Vaccines in Development for Cancer
Advantagene’s ProstAtak
Agennix’ Talactoferrin
Amgen’s Talimogene Laherparepvec
Apeiron’s APN311 (ch14.18/CHO) and APN301 (hu14.18-IL2)
Bavarian Nordic’s PROSTVAC
Biothera’s Imprime PGG
Cancer Advances’ Polyclonal Antibody Stimulator (PAS)
Celldex Therapeutics’ Rindopepimut
CEL-SCI’s Multikine
Eisai’s Farletuzumab
Endo Pharmaceutical’s and Bioniche Life Sciences’ Urocidin
Galena Biopharma’s NeuVax
GlaxoSmithKline’s GSK1572932A and GSK 2132231A
GSK 2132231A
immatics biotechnologies’ IMA901
Merck Serono’s and Oncothyreon’s Stimuvax
NewLink Genetics’ HyperAcute-Pancreas (algenpantucel-L)
NovaRx’ Lucanix
Polynoma’s POL-103A
Prima BioMed’s CVac
RECOMBIO’s Racotumomab (1E10)
Transgene’s TG4010
United Therapeutics’ ch14.18
Vaccinogen’s OncoVAX
Vical’s and AnGes’ Allovectin-7
8.2. Selected Immunoconjugates in DevelopmentActive Biotech’s ANYARA

 Chapter 9 
Selected Novel Cytotoxic Drugs in Development
9.1. BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals’ Karenitecin
9.2. Celgene’s and Dainippon Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals’ Amrubicin
9.3. Cyclacel Pharmaceutical’s Sapacitabine
9.4. Eleison Pharmaceuticals’ Glufosfamide
9.5. Endocyte’s Vintafolide (EC145)
9.6. Janssen Products’, PharmaMar’s, and Taiho’s Yondelis
9.7. Spectrum Pharmaceuticals’ and Allergan’s EOquin (Apaziquone)
9.8. Taiho Pharmaceutical’s TAS-102
9.9. Threshold Pharmaceuticals’ TH-302
9.10. ZIOPHARM Oncology’s Zymafos (Palifosfamide)

 Chapter 10 
Selected Other Emerging Therapies for Solid Tumors
10.1. Bayer’s and Algeta’s Alpharadin (Radium-223 Dichloride)
10.2. BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals’ Tavocept
10.3. OncoGenex Technologies’ and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries’ Custirsen Sodium
10.4. Oncolytics Biotech’s REOLYSIN
10.5. Steba Biotech’s Tookad

 Chapter 11 
Business Considerations
11.1. Current Sales of Drugs for Treatment of Solid Tumors
11.2. Personalized Medicine in the Field of Solid Tumors
11.3. Selected Challenges and Hurdles Being Faced by Companies in the Field of Solid Tumors

 Chapter 12
Expert Interviews
12.1. Thomas CK Chan, PhD 
Chief Scientific Officer ArQule
12.2. Habib Fakhrai, PhD Chief Scientific Officer NovaRx
12.3. Michael G. Hanna, Jr., PhD Founder and Chairman Vaccinogen
12.4. Spiro Rombotis President and Chief Executive Officer Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals
12.5. Vijay B. Samant President and CEO Vical


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