Length 
154 pages

Date published 
December 2008

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Biomedical Imaging: From Drug Target Discovery to Medical Diagnostics Table of Contents

 

Author: Hermann A.M. Mucke, PhD

Chapter 1
RENDERING LIVING OBJECTS BY INVISIBLE PROPERTIES: THE TECHNOLOGIES OF BIOIMAGING
1.1. Mapping Signals from Molecular Responses and Interactions

Three Dimensions Compressed into Two
Tomography: Virtual Slicing and Reconstruction
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Rendering of Tomographic Images
1.2. Computed X-ray Tomography
1.3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
1.4. Isotope Imaging: PET and SPECT

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Positron Emission Tomography
1.5. Optical Techniques: Fluorescence, Bioluminescence, and Optical PET
Fluorescence and Bioluminescence-Base Imaging
Diffuse Optical Imaging
Optical Coherence Tomography
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Its Derivatives
Spectroscopic Imaging Technologies
  Optical Spectroscopy
  Imaging Based on Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
  FRAP and FLIP
1.6. Other Imaging Technologies and Overarching Approaches
Ultrasound and Photoacoustics
Imaging and Nanotechnology
Brain Mapping with Endogenous Fields and Electrodes

Chapter 2
MOLECULAR IMAGING IN TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
2.1. Optical Molecular Imaging Tags: From Discovery to Design
Fluorescent Proteins
Bioluminescence
Target-Activated Probes and Proximity Assays
Quantum Dots
2.2. Cellular-Level Molecular Imaging in Drug Discovery and Target Characterization
Cell-Based High-Content Screening Versus Cellular Molecular Imaging
2.3. Small Animal Imaging
The SAIR Program in the United States, and Other Significant Small Animal Imaging Sites
Classical Microtomographic Technologies
Optical Imaging of Laboratory Animals
Ultrasound Imaging of Research Animals
2.4. Molecular Imaging Applications in Predictive Safety Technologies
2.5. Imaging in Clinical Trials: Present and Near Future

A Catalog for Potential Clinical Imaging Biomarkers
Science and Logistics: Formidable Challenges for Sponsors and Sites
Alzheimer’s Disease
Multiple Sclerosis
Molecular Imaging in Cancer Trials: A Large Field Still to be Explored
Stem Cell and Gene Therapies
Atherosclerosis

Chapter 3
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING AT NUCLEAR MEDICINE CENTERS AND AT THE DOCTOR’S OFFICE
3.1. Key Market Characteristics for Clinical Nuclear Medicine Imaging
3.2. Cancer Staging, Therapy Planning, and Response Assessment

Solid Tumors: The Largest Field for Imaging
  Lung Cancer
  Optical Breast Imaging: Beyond Digital Mammography
  Urological Cancers: Prostate and Bladder Tumors
  Melanoma
  Limited Potential for Molecular Imaging in Difficult-to-Treat Cancers
  New Developments in Colonoscopy
3.3. Cardiorespiratory and Vascular Imaging
Inflammatory Lung Diseases
Imaging Agents for Cardiac Stress Testing and Heart Failure
Nuclear Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque
3.4. Neuroimaging
Dementia
Parkinson’s Disease and Attention Deficit Disorder
Multiple Sclerosis
Pain and Inflammation
3.5. Imaging in Eye Diseases
3.6. Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, and Gout: From Structure to Function
3.7. Diabetes: A Challenging Crossover Case for Molecular Imaging
3.8. HIV Tropism: A Clniical Application of Cellular Molecular Imaging

Chapter 4
MOLECULAR IMAGING AND REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
4.1. FDA Regulations of Medical Imaging Agents
4.2. Specific FDA Regulations of PET Tracers
4.3. Molecular Imaging Feels the Crunch from the Deficit Reduction Act Reimbursement Cut
4.4. Regulation of Tomographic Scanners and Picture Archiving Systems

Tomographic Scanners
Picture Archiving Systems
4.5. Molecular Imaging Data as Endpoints in Drug Trials
Reading of Imaging Data in Clinical Trials
  Training of Readers
  Blinding of Readers

Submission and Regulatory Review of Imaging Data
4.6. European Regulatory Positions on Molecular Imaging

Chapter 5
SELECTED PLAYERS IN THE MOLECULAR IMAGING BUSINESS
5.1. Cellular Imaging Equipment and Software Vendors

Carl Zeiss
  ApoTome Imaging System
  Cell Observer HS
  Laser Scanning Microscopes

Leitz
  Total Internal Fluorescence Microscopy System
  “Super-resolution” Confocal/Multiphoton Systems

Olympus
Nikon
PerkinElmer
Caliper Life Sciences
VisEn Medical
Mauna Kea/Cellvizio
VisualSonics
Media Cybernetics
5.2. Manufacturing of Preclinical and Clinical Molecular Imaging Equipment 
GE Healthcare
Siemens Healthcare
Philips Healthcare
Bruker
Biospace Lab
Berthold Technologies
Positron
Digirad
Carestream Health
LI-COR Biosciences
5.3. Developers of Imaging Agents and Probes
Bayer Schering Pharma
Siemens Medical Solutions
GE Healthcare
Lantheus Medical Imaging
Alseres Pharmaceuticals
Aposense
Avid Radiopharmaceuticals
Kereos
Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals
FluoroPharma
Invitrogen
Advanced Research Technologies
AION Diagnostics

Chapter 6
CELLULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING, CLINICAL BIOMARKERS, AND IMAGE ANALYSIS: A PERSPECTIVE FOR THE 2010s
6.1. Role of Cellular Imaging in Drug Discovery and Development
6.2. Imaging Biomarkers
6.3. Information Technology and Imaging: The Overarching Tool

Appendix A
MOLECULAR IMAGING RESOURCES
Societies, Transnational Institutions, and Conferences
Journals and Databases
Industry Magazines
Databases

Appendix B
INSIGHT PHARMA REPORTS MOLECULAR IMAGING SURVEY—NOVEMBER 2008

References
Company Index with Web Addresses